Flashback is one of the narrative techniques used in Literature to throw more light on event of the past as it relate to the present event.
Amma Darko uses flashback in faceless to tell this story of both maa Tsuru and the circumstances surrounding her birth. This is also used to tell us why fofo and others run into the street. It is also used to reveal to us why Maa Tsuru locks herself up for days with her two boys on account of fear of poison trailing her. Through the flashback we are that poison used to live in one room with his stepfather , mother and five siblings poison suffers torture in the stepfather’s hands; the man is constantly beating him when the torture becomes unbearable for poison he runs away from home at eight years. He becomes a street boy surviving in the street. He grows up to become a street lord and Vivian.
Poison suffered child abuse physically and sexually and emotionally. This left a very big scar on poison who recorded the first instance of child abuse on fofo a fourteen years old girl who decide to sleep in an open shade at agbogloshire market in order to wake up early for her job of washing carrots. Poison tires to rape her there. Through flashback we learn that maa tsuru’s first husband kwei abandon her after fathering four children with her
(i) The widowhood experiences
of Yaremi, Dedewe, Fayoyin and Radeke are a
miscrosm of the plight of
widows in the larger
Nigerian society and in the
African continent as a
whole. The author condemns widow
remarriage and other
cultural practices that
subject widows to pain
important theme that
runs through the novel is
the theme of loneliness.
Yaremi was very lonely
and had to do most things by
herself. For instance, she had to appeal
to Uncle Deyo, Ajumobi’s
friend to assist in mending
her leaking roof and
rebuilding the walls of her
(iii) Humiliation: Yaremi
suffered humiliation from
extended relations who
accused her of killing her
husband. Dedewe, Fayoyin
and Radeke also suffered humiliation. For instance,
Dedewe was made to sit in
a dark room by her
husband’s corpse while
Fayoyin’s hair was b@dly
shaved. Hardwork or Diligence: The theme of
diligence is expressed by
character. The author uses
several anecdotes to
CASTLE OF OTRANTO
In the Gothic novel, the female characters are predominantly passive and this is mostly characterized by the gentle and obedient mien of lady Hippolita, Prince Manfred’s wife and lady of the castle who is always submissive and supportive of her husbands actions,not weighing the merits or otherwise, not even considering it’s effects on herself and her children.
For example, when faced with the death of Conrad, Hippolita, even in her sad state could only think about the feeling of her husband, while Manfred, reacts in a tempest of rage, asking to marry his son’s betrothed as the only thing he could think of his who should succeed him as the Lord of the castle (siring and hair).
In the vein, anytime a conflict arises in the work, while the man stay and fight, the women are portrayed as cowards who run and hide in the face of conflict thereby portraying them as coward.
Another pointer is shown on how the women dote on upon their men and attend to the in firm while the men gleefully venture to confront the cause of danger and bravely confront it ( the alpha gender).
Likewise, while Manfred and Frederic, Isabella’s father were bargaining on marriage, the woman’s consent were not sought, buttressing the fact that they had no clear voice.
To cap everything, the initial conflict in the novel is due to Manfred wanting an heir (a son) despite having an agile, virile daughter which also boldly paints a society where only male inherits and the female, inherited
(i)Use of Irony:There is the use of situational irony in some of the episodes in the novel. Bigger has always seen very white person as his enemy. Every white person is a symbol of oppression to him. In meeting Mary Dalton,Providence bring a white friend his way. Mary is friendly towards Bigger as soon as she meets him. Unfortunately, his hatred for whites is what he is ready to give in return.The same feelings play out between him and Jan,another white person.While he develops intense anger and hatred towards this pair of lovers,he tend to see Mr Dalton as a nice and smart white folk. Rather than bring confidence to Bigger ,Marry and Jan’s Friendly overtures actually make him feel bitter and ashamed of himself. He feels humiliated .On the other hand, Mary and Jan are not only believe that they are doing the best for their newly-found black friend, they are doing so at the risk of disapproval from their own folk.The two parties are actually operating in total ignorance of the other’s situation, a condition brought about by years of unhealthy extreme opinion about others.
It is also ironical that Jan,whom Bigger tried to blame his murder of marry on,would later steps o free same Bigger of culpability in the crime .He is the one who bring Max to Bigger to act as his counsel during his arraignment.
While the searching for Mary Dalton is ongoing,Mr Dalton announces the press his receipt of a kidnap note in which “Ten thousand dollar” is being asked as ransom money for the release of his daughter. He also announce his readiness to pay the money while imploring the reporters present to capture not only this in their stories ,but also his readiness to comply with their instructions. The abductor,If any,is right under Mr Dalton’s nose by the name Bigger. The so called abductor is right there while searches are aimed n other directions.
Another ironic situation is noticed with respect to Bigger’s Freedom. While restricting to a cell in prison ,he feels free whereas outside he feels constrained. similarly, before committing murder ,he often feels as if he is not living ,as if he is just a zombie being pushed around by others.However, with the murder of Mary and later ,Bessie ,he feels alive for the first time.He feels he had done something .His life is now meaningful. With this killing of Mary,He feels that he has “shed an invisible burden he had long carried”.
(ii)Use of Symbolism:From Richard Wright’s How Bigger war Born ,his introduction to the novel,it is easy to infer that some of the character in the narrative are used with symbolic intention. As far as this intention is concerned,the protagonist’s symbolic use is clear. According to the novelist ,the birth of Bigger goes back to his childhood” and there was not just one Bigger,but many of them,more than I could count and more than you could suspects “.All these many Bigger are fused into the Bigger Thomas of Native son. In other words,Bigger Thomas us a symbolic representative of the different attitude ,beliefs and reactions of blacks to the oppressive environment in which they find themselves. Characters like Jan,Max and Mary are also used symbolically to represent the liberal white folks who see nothing wrong in the idea of equality of all races and the oneness of humanity. These examples are drawn from the communist party by Wright probably because Communist were the most vocal and unpretentious advocates of this idea in the society depicted in the novel.
Mr Dalton is also a symbolic of capitalism in the Novel.He exploits the Blacks ,make his wealth out of them but turns around to give them an insignificant fraction f the wealth as charity and sign of goodwill
Another important use of symbolism in the novel can be seen in the case of the insane an brought into Bigger ‘s cell at the cook county jail.This supposedly insane an is put in jail because he has written a book to expose why blacks are treated badly n the country .According to the man himself ,he want to tell the president of the country how blacks like him are made to live in slums,where they buy food at higher prices ,where they pay tax but have no hospitals,where the school are “crowded that they breed preverts” and where blacks are hired last but fired first.Certainly these are most of the issue which make Bigger disgruntled with the white world .If he shares these views with the “insane man”, then he is also insane .By bringing the insane man into Bugger’s cell to give expression to these shared views ,the novelist demonstrates that any black man who is sane enough to challenge the white world is considered mad by the white world .Thus ,the ” insane man”becomes symbolic of Bugger’s insanity.