DATA PROCESSING ANSWERS
Data processing obj
DATA PROCESSING ESSAY PART
Normalization is a process for evaluating and correcting table structures to minimize data redundancies,thereby helping to eliminate data anomalies. it helps in evaluate table structures and produce good table.
(i)Index searching is often faster, since indexes tend to be narrower and shorter.
(ii) More tables allow better use of segments to control physical placement of data.
(iii) You usually have fewer indexes per table, so data modification commands are faster.
(iv)Normalization is conceptually cleaner and easier to maintain and change as your needs change.
(v)Triggers execute more quickly if you are not maintaining redundant data.
A wand is a handheld optical reader that is used to read barcodes as well as typewritten, printed and OCR fonts. Wand are used to capture product information for detail and warehouse application.
Total HD 500GB
Operating System used 20GB and 1.536GB (converting MB to GB) .
Packages used 150 GB
Documents used 150.5GB
Therefore, the total space used is 322.04(approximately)
Therefore, total HD – total used space = 500 – 322.04 = 177.96GB.
The total space left on the HD is 177.96GB
Database index is a data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on a database table at the cost of additional writes and storage space to maintain the index data structure.
(i) Unique and non-unique index
(ii) Clustered and non-clustered index
(iii) Partitioned and non-partitioned index
(i) Unique Index: These are indexes that helped maintain data integrity by ensuring that no two rows of data in a table have identical key values.
*Information processing* is the manipulation of data to produce useful information; it involves the capture of information in a format that is retrievable and analyzable. … Information processing provides individuals with basic skills to use the computer to process many types of information effectively and efficiently
*COMMAND LINE INTERFACE*
(i)Analysis; Starts at the last checkpoint in transaction log. This pass determines and constructs a dirty page table (DPT) consisting of pages that might be dirty at the time SQL Server stopped. An active transaction table is built of the uncommitted transactions at the time of the SQL Server stopped also.
(ii)Redo; This phase returns the database to the state at the time the SQL service stopped. Starting point for this forward passbeing the oldest uncommitted transaction. The mininum Log Sequence name (each log record is labelled with an LSN) in the DPT is the first time SQL Server expects to have to redo an operation on a page, redoing the logged operations starting right back at the oldest open transaction so that the neccessary locks can be aquired.
(iii)Undo: Here the list of active transaction (uncommitted at the time SQL Server stoopped) which where indentified in Phase 1 are rolled back individually. SQL Server follows the links between entries in the transaction log for each transaction. Any transaction that was not committed at the time SQL Server stopped is undone.
spreadsheet packages; they are designed to work on specific operating systems, some can be used cross-platform. In other words spreadsheet packages are designed to emulate. Before Excel reached the pinnacle of popularity.
(i)Simple (or “Gray Cell”) Tables, which I’ve used since Excel 2.0.
(ii)Excel Tables, introduced in Excel 2007.
(iii)PivotTables with a Tabular Report Layout, introduced in Excel 2010.
(Answer ANY FIVE)
Marketing; refers to activities undertaken by a company to promote the buying or selling of a product or service.
(i)Intangibility; When you buy a car, you can see it, feel it, and even test it prior to purchase. In other words, products have tangible qualities that provide information to consumers so they can easily compare one product to another.
(ii)Inseparability; To continue using the automobile analogy, cars are produced at one location, sold at another, and used at yet another location. Services are unique because they are usually provided and consumed at the same time in the same location (e.g. a haircut or car tune-up).
(iii)Perishability; If a car does not sell today, it can be stored and sold the following day or at some other time in the future. Services, on the other hand, are often perishable, meaning that unused capacity cannot be stored for future use or sale. For example, a restaurant might be full one night and half empty the next.
(iv)Variability; Once you have decided to buy a Honda Accord, you know that there will be no variation in the quality of the Accord from one Honda dealer to another. Manufactured goods tend to have automated processes and quality assurance procedures that result in a consistent product.
Mass Marketing; is a market strategy in which a firm decides to ignore market segment differences and appeal the whole market with one offer or one strategy, which supports the idea of broadcasting a message that will reach the largest number of people possible.
Ambush marketing; is a marketing strategy in which an advertiser “ambushes” an event to compete for exposure against other advertisers. In other words is a marketing technique that raises awareness of a brand in covert ways.
Referral marketing; is the method of promoting products or services to new customers through referrals, usually word of mouth. In other words such referrals often happen spontaneously but businesses can influence this through appropriate strategies.
Green marketing; this is the process of selling products and/or services based on their environmental benefits. In other words such a product or service may be environmentally friendly in itself or produced in an environmentally friendly way, such as: Being manufactured in a sustainable fashion.
SMS marketing; is a technique that uses permission-based text messaging to spread promotional messages. In other word is to receive text message specials, new product updates or more information, customers are usually required to opt in to an automated system by texting an initial shortcode.
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Product design is the process of efficient and effective idea generation and development with the goal of creating new products.
(i) Idea Generation: The design process begins with understanding the customers and their needs. Ideas for new products can come from a variety of sources both within and outside the firm. Internal sources include employees, research and development, market research sales force and reverse engineering.
(ii) Screening Ideas: The purpose of screening ideas is to eliminate those ideas that do not appear to have high potential and so avoid the costs incurred at subsequent stages.
(iii) Feasibility Study: Initial screening of the ideas is designed to stop the ideas, which are unsuitable for further considerations. In other words feasibility study consists of a market analysis, an economic analysis, and technical and strategic analysis.
(iv) Preliminary Design: design engineers take general performance specifications and translate them in to technical specifications. In other words the process of preliminary design involves building a prototype, testing the prototype, revising the design, retesting and so on until a viable design is determined.
Organisation chat: Is a diagram that visually conveys a company’s internal structure by detailing the roles, responsibilities, and relationships between individuals within an entity. In other words organisation chat either broadly depict an enterprise company-wide or drill down to a specific department or unit.
(i) Marketing manager
(ii) Product manager
(iii) Social media manager
(iv) Communications manager
(i) Communications managers: Are responsible for promoting a company’s products, services or overall mission to the public. Duties may include identifying press opportunities, publishing press releases, crafting newsletters, creating social media strategies or serving as a spokesperson on behalf of a company.
(ii) Marketing managers: Help create and implement marketing strategies to help achieve business goals. This might include overseeing market research, competitive analysis, budgets, timelines and a team of marketing professionals.
(iii) Social media manager: Marketers help manage their companies’ social media accounts, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or LinkedIn. They help devise and oversee the social strategy in order to attract new customers and engage with existing ones.
(iii)Few Buyers And Large Volume
(iv)More Direct Channel Of Distribution
(i) Derived Demand: Organizational buying is based on derived demand. Demand made by the ultimate consumers creates demand for industrial goods or services. For instance, demand of electricity generator is determined according to the demand made by the consumers. Demand of organizational buyer changes in keeping with the changes in consumers’ demand.
(ii) Geographical Concentration: Organizational buyers remain concentrated in certain geographical area whereas consumers’
market remains scattered all around. Producers want to establish industry near by supply source. Mostly, industrial market is determined considering transport facilities and cost.
(iii) Few Buyers And Large Volume: The number of organizational buyers remains small but volume of sale is large. So, organizational marketers focus on their efforts on very small number of main buyers who buy goods or services in large volume paying bug amount of price.
(iv) More Direct Channel Of Distribution: High quantity of consumer goods or services is sold out through complex structure of wholesalers and retailers. This structure keeps producers and consumers separate or it works as the bridge between them. but in organizational selling, direct contact is established between buyers and sellers.
(v) Rational Buying: Organizational buyers use rational in buying goods or services compared to the ultimate consumers. They want to take more information about the features, quality, technical use, utility etc of products. Organizational buyers become aware of quality, services, delivery, price etc. of any products.
(7a) Market segmentation is the breakdown of a large target audience into smaller, more homogenous groups of customers while Product differentiation refers to the basic need to have product-related qualities that set your brand apart from the competition.
Advantages of Market Segmentation:
(i) The marketer can modify his product/service and marketing appeals to suit the target segment.
(ii) Segmentation facilitates setting up of realistic selling targets and priorities.
Disadvantages of Market Segmentation
(i) Larger inventory has to be maintained by both the manufacturer and the distributors.
(ii) Promotion and distribution expenditures increase when separate programme are used for different market segments.