WAEC 2022 Geography Questions and answers

Thursday 27th August 2022
Geography 2 (Essay) – 9:30am –11:30am
Geography 1 (objective) – 11:30am –12:30pm
Geography 3(Practical and Physical Geography) – 2:00pm – 3:50pm




Length of minor road from the dispensary at Uhomara to Ugiavon = 17.5cm on the map

Scale of map = 1:50,000cm
.:. 17.5cm on the ground = 17.5 x 50,000/10,000
= 8.75km

Human Features:
(i) Settlements
(ii) School
(iii) Bridge

Physical Features:
(i) River
(ii) Vegetation
(iii) Relief


(i) Latitude
(ii) Altitude
(iii) Ocean currents

(i) It has constant high temperature with daily temperature of 26°C with no winter
(ii) It has annual rainfall of over 200cm and rainfall is throughout the year
(iii) It has high humidity all year round with double maxima of rainfall
(iv) It has small annual temperature range of 2°C – 3°C
(v) It has convectional rainfall accompanied by lightening and thunder..

Weathering is the physical disintegration and chemical decomposition of rocks in soil.

(i) Temperature
(ii) Rainfall
(iii) Humidity

Exfoliation is a form of mechanical weathering in which curved plates of rock are stripped from rock below. Exfoliation process occurs in arid and semi arid areas. When arid and semi amid areas have high day and low night temperatures, rocks alternatively heat and cools. This makes the rock to expand during the day as a result of high temperature and contract during the night. When temperature decreases drastically continuous expansion and contraction leads to the peeling off of the outer layers of the rocks.

Atmospheric pollution refers to the release of a substance into the air in excessive quantities or to the level that is harmful to man, animals and plants.

(i) Mobile source eg exhaust
(ii) Area sources eg Bush burning
(iii) Natural sources eg Earthquake, volcanoes
(iv) Stationary sources eg harmful gases from oil refineries and factories

(Choose Any Four)
(i) Atmospheric pollution causes impaired health such as the irritation of eyes,lungs and skin cancer
(ii) It causes acid rain which can corrode materials and burn green plant
(iii) It increases and decreases the temperature
(iv) It causes the destruction of the ozone layer
(v) It can cause accidents as a result of poor visibility
(vi) It affects plant growth and aquatic life




(i) Climatic Conditions: Climatic or soil conditions in certain areas are suited for the production of a particular product. Such an area has got an overwhelming advantage over other areas.

(ii) Nearness to Raw Materials: This is a dominant factor in the location of an industry, especially that industry which uses bulky raw material that is expensive to transport and looses weight in the manufacturing process.

(iii) Availability of Finance: Finance is the life of every industry. Industries are located in those areas where banking and financial facilities are easily available. As a matter of fact, capital is attracted to those areas where industries are localised which, in turn, attract more industries.

(iv) Nearness to Markets: Before starting an industry, an entrepreneur has to take into consideration the market potentialities of his product. If the market is quite away from the place of manufacture, transport costs will be high which will raise the selling price of the product in comparison with other similar products which are manufactured near the market

(v) Adequate and Trained Labour: Industries tend to be concentrated in those areas where adequate supplies of trained labour are available. New industries are also attracted to such areas.

(i) Reputation: The place where an industry is localised gains reputation, and so do the products manufactured
there. As a result, products bearing the name of that place find wide markets, such as Sheffield cutlery,

(ii) Skilled Labour: Localisation leads to
specialisation in particular trades. As a result, workers skilled in those trades are attracted to that place.

(iii) Growth of Facilities: Concentration of an industry in particular locality leads to the growth of certain facilities there. To cater to the needs of the industry, banks and financial institutions open their branches, whereby the firms are able to get timely credit facilities.

(iv) Subsidiary Industries: Where industries are localised, subsidiary industries grow up to supply machines, tools, implements and other materials, and to utilise their by-products.

(v) Employment Opportunities: As a corollary to the above, with the localisation of an industry in a particular locality and the establishment of subsidiary industries, employment opportunities considerably increase in that locality.

(i) The buildings are very close to each other
(ii) The level of interaction between the inhabitants is very high
(iii) There is an obvious centre called a nucleus
(iv) Farmlands are located outside the settlement
(v) The area is well connected with roads.

(i) Selling expensive or rare goods/services e.g. Lagos.
(ii) Providing jobs in industry or services.
(iii) As an administration centre for the area around it.
(iv) As an entertainment centre, for example offering sporting attractions, shopping areas, restaurants.

(Choose Any Four)
(i) Accessibility and Relief
(ii) Economic activities
(iii) Provision of social amenities
(iv) Relief and climate
(v) Nature of the soil
(vi) Climate and Administration.

(i) Coal
(ii) Petroleum

(i) hydro-power
(ii) Solar energy

(i) Lack of modern technology for the mining and extraction of coal
(ii) Lack of good railway transportation system for conveying coal from mining to thermal plants.
(iii) Collapsed and unmaintained thermal plants
(iv) Lack of functional refineries for refining petroleum products.

(i) Investment by the government in putting adequate technology to resuscitate coal mining
(ii) The development of efficient railway system across the country, especially carrier trains for goods.
(iii) Overhauling of existent thermal plants to become functional and the building of new plants across critical locations of the country.
(iv) The government must repair the dormant refineries in the country, and build new high capacity ones.

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