2023 Neco history questions and answers

2023 Neco history questions and answers











(i) Trade and Commerce: Establishing diplomatic ties allowed for enhanced trade and commerce between the states. This brought economic benefits to the states involved as they could exchange goods resources and services in a more organized and mutually beneficial manner.


(ii) Security and Defense: Diplomatic ties fostered a sense of unity and cooperation among the states which was essential for collective security and defense. By collaborating and forming alliances they could better protect themselves against common external threats such as raids from other states or external powers.


(iii) Cultural and Social Exchange: Diplomatic ties provided opportunities for cultural and social exchange. States could share knowledge traditions customs and technologies thereby enriching their own societies. This led to an increased understanding and respect for one another’s cultures fostering a sense of unity and shared identity.

(iv) Conflict Resolution: Diplomatic ties provided a platform for peaceful resolution of conflicts that might arise between states. By engaging in diplomatic negotiations disputes and tensions could be resolved through dialogue and compromise rather than resorting to violence and warfare. This promoted stability and prevented the escalation of conflicts.


(v) Communication and Information Exchange: Diplomatic ties facilitated the exchange of information and communication between states. This was important for keeping abreast of developments sharing news intelligence and coordinating actions which was particularly crucial in times of crisis or emergencies.


(vi) Political and Diplomatic Influence: Establishing diplomatic ties allowed states to gain political and diplomatic influence within the region. By forming alliances and maintaining cordial relations they could raise their stature and gain leverage in regional affairs. This enabled them to negotiate better terms in treaties and agreements and have a voice in regional decision-making.


(vii) Preemption of External Influence: By promoting diplomatic ties amongst themselves the various states aimed to preempt external interference or domination. This was particularly significant at a time when European powers were increasingly expanding their colonial ambitions in Africa. By presenting a united front the states could resist external pressures and maintain their sovereignty to a certain extent.

(NO 3)

(i) Agriculture: Agriculture formed the backbone of the Nupe economy. The kingdom was situated in a fertile region along the Niger River and benefited from favorable agricultural conditions.


(ii) Trade: The Nupe Kingdom was strategically located along important trade routes, serving as a middleman between the Saharan and West African regions. The kingdom facilitated the trade of goods such as salt, kola nuts, cotton, ivory, slaves, and other commodities.


(iii) Tribute: The Nupe Kingdom had a centralized political structure with a hierarchical system of administration. Local chiefs and rulers within the kingdom owed allegiance to the Nupe king, and they paid tribute in the form of goods, livestock, or labor.


(iv) Taxes: Nupe rulers likely imposed taxes on their subjects, including levies on land, livestock, and economic activities.


(v) Craftsmanship and Artistry: The Nupe people were known for their skilled craftsmanship and artistic traditions. They produced a wide range of goods, including pottery, textiles, woodcarvings, metalwork, and leather goods.


(vi) Tribute from Conquered Territories: The Nupe Kingdom expanded through military conquests, incorporating neighboring territories and kingdoms. Conquered regions would have paid tribute to the Nupe rulers, providing additional rev•enue streams.

(NO 4)

(a). Abolition of the slave trade: By the 19th century, the British had committed themselves to abolishing the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Lagos was a major center for slave trading in West Africa, with European and African slave traders operating from there. The British saw Lagos as a hub of illegal slave trading activities, and therefore decided to take action to suppress the slave trade in the region.


(b). British commercial interests: Lagos had become an increasingly important trading post in the region, attracting European merchants and traders. The British, in particular, saw potential economic benefits in establishing a closer relationship with Lagos and securing access to its lucrative markets. The bombardment of Lagos was seen as a way to assert British control and protect their economic interests in the region.


(c). Competition with other European powers: The British were also motivated by a desire to prevent other European powers, such as France and Portugal, from gaining influence in Lagos. Given the strategic location of Lagos and its potential as a trading center, the British sought to establish their dominance and prevent any rival colonial powers from gaining a foothold in the region.


(d). Response to local political unrest: Lagos was facing internal political conflicts and disputes, with different factions vying for power. The British viewed these conflicts as an opportunity to intervene and establish themselves as the arbiters of power in the region. The bombardment of Lagos was a way for the British to assert their political influence and control over the local affairs.


In conclusion, the British bombardment of Lagos in 1851 was driven by a combination of motives, including the abolition of the slave trade, the pursuit of commercial interests, competition with other European powers, and a desire to establish political control over the region.




(a). Demographic impact: The slave trade resulted in the forced removal of millions of Africans, including Nigerians, from their homeland. This massive population loss disrupted social structures and led to population imbalances, with certain regions experiencing significant depopulation. This demographic impact had long-lasting consequences for Nigeria, affecting cultural practices, labor dynamics, and economic development.


(b). Economic consequences: The trans-Atlantic slave trade contributed to the underdevelopment of Nigeria’s economic potential. The extraction of slaves for the trade disrupted local economies, as people were taken away from agricultural and productive activities. This prevented the growth of industries and hindered economic diversification. The focus on slave production also stagnated technological advancements and hindered the development of a skilled workforce.


(c) Social and cultural disruption: The slave trade caused profound social and cultural disruptions within Nigerian society. Families and communities were torn apart, leading to loss of kinship ties and social cohesion. Cultural practices, traditions, and knowledge were eroded as people were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands. This has had long-lasting implications for Nigeria’s social fabric and cultural identity.


(d). Political consequences: The trans-Atlantic slave trade also impacted the political landscape of Nigeria. Slave raiding and the demand for captives to be sold fueled conflicts and warfare among different Nigerian ethnic groups, leading to instability and insecurity. The power dynamics within Nigerian states and empires were altered as slaving became a lucrative and power-enhancing venture for some rulers.


In summary, the trans-Atlantic slave trade had far-reaching effects on Nigeria, including demographic imbalances, economic underdevelopment, social disruption, and political instability. These effects continue to shape Nigeria’s society and development to this day.




(a). Military achievements: El-Kanemi was renowned for his military leadership and strategic prowess. He successfully led numerous military campaigns, expanding the borders of Borno and consolidating its territories. His military successes brought stability and security to the region, protecting Borno from external threats and ensuring the safety of its inhabitants.


(b) Administrative reforms: El-Kanemi implemented important administrative reforms in Borno. He established a centralized system of governance, introducing institutions and bureaucracies to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the state. This included the creation of administrative offices, the appointment of officials, and the implementation of policies to improve governance.


(c) Promotion of education and scholarship: El-Kanemi was a patron of Islamic scholars and contributed to the flourishing of Islamic education in Borno. He established Quranic schools, supported scholars, and encouraged the pursuit of knowledge. This led to the growth of intellectual and cultural life in Borno, with the region becoming a center of Islamic scholarship and learning.


(d) Economic development: El-Kanemi focused on economic development, promoting trade and commerce in Borno. He encouraged entrepreneurship, developed trade networks, and supported local industries. This resulted in an expansion of Borno’s economy, increased prosperity, and improved standards of living for its people.


(e). Promotion of cultural heritage: El-Kanemi placed great importance on preserving Borno’s cultural heritage and traditions. He promoted the arts, music, literature, and architecture of Borno, ensuring the preservation and enrichment of its cultural identity. His support for cultural endeavors helped to strengthen the sense of pride and identity among the people of Borno.


In summary, El-Kanemi made significant contributions to Borno in the 19th century, including military achievements, administrative reforms, promotion of education and scholarship, economic development, and the preservation of cultural heritage. His leadership and vision played a vital role in the growth and prosperity of Borno during this period.

NO 5

The trans-Atlantic slave trade had a profound impact on Nigeria in the 19th century. The slave trade was responsible for the forced migration of millions of Africans, including many from Nigeria, to the Americas, Europe, and other parts of the world. This had a devastating effect on the population of Nigeria, as entire communities were uprooted and families were torn apart. The slave trade also had a significant economic impact on Nigeria, as it disrupted local economies and created a demand for slaves that fueled conflicts and wars between different ethnic groups. Many of the kingdoms and empires of Nigeria participated in the slave trade, either by capturing and selling slaves themselves or by trading with European slave traders. This led to the growth of powerful states such as the Oyo Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate, but also created political instability and weakened the power of traditional rulers. The legacy of the trans-Atlantic slave trade can still be felt in Nigeria today, as many communities continue to suffer from the effects of slavery and the loss of cultural heritage that accompanied it.

(NO 6)

El-Kanemi also known as Muhammad al-Amin al-Kanemi was a prominent leader who made significant contributions to Borno in the 19th century in Nigeria. He was the founder and ruler of the Islamic state of Kanem-Borno which was one of the largest and most powerful states in West Africa during his time.


One of El-Kanemi’s major contributions was the consolidation and expansion of the Kanem-Borno Empire. He implemented effective administrative and military reforms strengthening the state’s governance and military capabilities. This allowed the empire to withstand numerous invasions and external pressures ensuring its territorial integrity and stability.


El-Kanemi was also a fervent promoter of Islamic teachings and principles. He encouraged the spread of Islam throughout the empire establishing Islamic schools mosques and religious institutions. This led to the widespread adoption of Islam by the people of Borno transforming the region into a center of Islamic learning and scholarship.


Furthermore El-Kanemi played a crucial role in promoting trade and commerce in Borno. He actively encouraged the development of trade routes and markets fostering economic prosperity within the empire. This stimulated the growth of various industries and facilitated the exchange of goods and ideas with neighboring regions.


Additionally El-Kanemi’s administration prioritized agriculture and irrigation. He implemented innovative farming techniques and irrigation systems improving agricultural productivity and ensuring food security within the empire. This in turn led to population growth and the expansion of urban centers within Borno.


El-Kanemi’s contributions to Borno in the 19th century left a lasting impact on the region. His leadership and reforms not only strengthened the political and military stability of the Kanem-Borno Empire but also promoted the spread of Islam facilitated economic growth and improved agricultural practices. These developments laid the foundation for Borno’s continued cultural economic and political significance in the region.






(i) Economic Development: Under the military regime Nigeria experienced significant economic growth. The government implemented policies to diversify the economy focusing on industries such as oil and agriculture. This led to a substantial increase in revenue and the establishment of infrastructure projects across the country.


(ii) Infrastructural Development: The military governments initiated various infrastructural projects that helped in modernizing Nigeria. Numerous roads bridges and highways were constructed improving transportation networks across the country. Additionally the government invested in the development of telecommunications power generation and water supply systems.


(iii) Agricultural Development: The military governments recognized the importance of agriculture in Nigeria’s economy and pursued policies to boost agricultural production. They implemented programs that encouraged mechanization improved irrigation techniques and promoted research and development in the agricultural sector. These initiatives increased food production and reduced dependency on imports.


(iv) Education and Healthcare: The military governments prioritized the improvement of education and healthcare systems. They increased funding for educational institutions constructed schools and universities and expanded access to education for previously marginalized communities. Similarly efforts were made to enhance healthcare services by establishing new clinics hospitals and vaccination programs.


(v) National Unity: The military regimes also focused on promoting national unity and integration in a diverse nation like Nigeria. They encouraged cultural exchanges initiated inter-ethnic dialogues and implemented policies to reduce regional disparities. These efforts played a crucial role in fostering a sense of nationhood and reducing ethnic tensions.


(vi) Foreign Relations: Military governments in Nigeria also made significant strides in foreign policy. They strengthened diplomatic relations with other African countries played an active role in regional and international organizations and pursued policies that enhanced Nigeria’s influence in global affairs. This helped in promoting Nigeria’s image and attracting foreign investments.


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