Neco 2022 Agricultural science solutions
Agriculture can be defined as the act of cultivating crops and rearing of animals for man’s consumption
(i) National Horticulture research institute
(ii) National root crops research institute
(iii) Lake Chad research institute
(iv)Rubber research institute of Nigeria
(v)Agricultural research Council of Nigeria
(vi)International institute of tropical Agriculture
(i)Grease Frictional part
(ii)Always check the radiators
(iii)Ensure the bolts and nuts are well tightened
(iv) Wash all dirty part
(v) Check the oil level
(i) Relative humidity
(i) Tillage Practices.
(iv) Bush Burning.
(i) Carbondioxide is lost in the atmosphere mainly by photosynthesis during which plants use it to manufacture their own food.
(ii) By Direct air Capture.
(iii) Carbon mineralization.
(i) It makes the farm more prone to hazard lds, e.g. falling into an open drain.
(ii) It is expensive and difficult to establish.
(iii) They are prone to gully erosion.
(iv) They hinder the passage of machine like tractor.
(v) It occupies good land (space) that could have been used for planting
(i) forest regulations
(ii) selective exploration
(i) some beneficial insects and soil organisms may be destroyed.
(ii) The chemical used may be toxic to man and domestic animals
(iii) It may leave. undesirable residue in the environment.
(i) Deep , fertile well drained laomy soil
(ii) loose and friable with high water retention
(ii)Cocoa grows best in areas with 1140 – 2000mm annual rainfall, well distributed most of the year
(iii)Needs constant supply of moisture
Method of propagation:
(i) By seeds
(ii) Vegetatively by budding and stem cutting
Nursery is done October to January. Field(transplanting) between April and June
(i)Nursery : 20cm × 20cm
(ii)Field : 3m × 3m
Two stage of processing:
(i) Breaking of pods: The pods are carefully opened with a blunt cutlass or by hitting them with heavy rod to remove from the cocoa beans
(ii) Fermentation: Cocoa beans can be fermented by using the sweat box or tray method for about five days. During the fermentation process, cocoa beans undergo chemical changes brought by the action of heat.
(i) weeds cause losses in crop yield.
(ii) Reduce the quality of crop products.
(iii)weeds lead to increased cost of farm operations thereby leasing to inefficiency of farm operations.
(iv) form alternative hosts for pest.
(i) Treatment them with coccidiostat or anticoccidial drugs
(ii) prophylactic use of coccidiostat in feeds
(iii) vaccine and maintain good hygiene and sanitation practices
(iii) Ear canker mange
(i)it is easier and less expensive than t mating since the farmer is saved the expense of maintaning a herd of male animals.
(ii)It is easier and cheaper to import the semen of exotic breeds rather than the male animals themselves.
(iii)It makes it possible to use the best male animal to a large extent.
(i) Regular feeding
(ii)Deweeding of the pond
(iii) control of predators
(iv) Regular application of fertilizer
(i) Traditional method of bee keeping
(i) location of apiaries far from human dwellings
(ii) putting warning symbols near apiaries
(i) Poor Management: The senior officials of these cooperatives on the average lack business experience. Their managerial skills are low and thus reduces the efficiency of the cooperatives.
(ii) Illiteracy: These societies are usually made up of ordinary people who want to get better deals. The members are mostly illiterates and create so many problems for the societies without even realising it.
(iii) Lack of Cooperation: Since the members are made up of people from different backgrounds and with different experiences, there is usually a lack of cooperation since people have different views of things.
(i) Organisational Ability
(ii) Clear Judgement
(iv) Excellent public speaking skills
(i) Farm Gate
(ii) Wholesale Markets
(iii) Retail Markets
(i) SALES ACCOUNT: It is also called sales and receipt account. It shows the details of farm produce sold (type of produce, quantity, date sold, to whom, and at what price)
(ii) PURCHASE ACCOUNT: It is also known as purchase and expenses account. It shows in details, all items purchased and used during the production period. The detail includes inputs name, date purchased, quantity, cost per unit and from whom.
(iii) FARM VALUATION: Farm valuation is carried out in order to get a time value of the farm. It involves the complete listing of assets and their values. Farm valuation carried out at the beginning is called opening valuation while that carried at the end is known as closing valuation.
(iv) CASH ANALYSIS ACCOUNT: It shows the income and expenditure of a farm over a given period of time. In preparing this account, sales and receipts are recorded on the debit side(containing columns for date, name, and details or particulars) while purchases and payment are entered on the credit side(purchase and expenses).