Waec 2024 foods and nutrition answers





(1ai) The kind of reaction that occurred on the beef is bacterial decomposition or spoilage.

(1aii) Three causes of the bacterial decomposition or spoilage of the beef could be:
1. Exposure to air: When the beef was left on the counter, it was exposed to air, which allowed bacteria to thrive and decompose the meat.
2. Temperature abuse: If the beef was not stored at the proper temperature, such as in a refrigerator, it would have facilitated the growth of bacteria and accelerated spoilage.
3. Moisture: If the beef was not properly dried or stored in a moist environment, it would have provided an ideal condition for bacterial growth and spoilage.

(1aiii) The caterer could have prevented the bacterial decomposition or spoilage of the beef by promptly refrigerating it after receiving the supply, ensuring it was properly sealed to limit exposure to air, and maintaining proper hygiene and sanitation practices in the kitchen.

(1aiv) Two equipment suitable for preventing the bacterial decomposition or spoilage of the beef are:
1. Refrigerator: Proper refrigeration at the right temperature can slow down bacterial growth and preserve the freshness of the beef.
2. Vacuum sealer: Using a vacuum sealer can remove air from the packaging, creating an airtight seal that helps prevent bacterial contamination and spoilage.

Perishable food:
– Spoils quickly if not stored properly
– Examples: fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat, seafood
– Need refrigeration or freezing
– Can harbor harmful bacteria

Non-perishable food:
– Can be stored for a long time without spoiling
– Examples: canned and dried goods
– Do not require refrigeration or freezing
– Used for emergencies or when fresh food is not available




(i) Nutrient-rich: Fruits are packed with essential vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants crucial for growth and development during adolescence.
(ii) Fiber content: Fruits are a great source of dietary fiber, which aids in digestion, maintains bowel health, and helps prevent constipation.
(iii) Hydration: Many fruits have high water content, contributing to overall hydration, especially important for active adolescents.
(iv) Energy boost: The natural sugars in fruits provide a quick energy boost, making them ideal snacks for busy adolescents.
(v) Weight management: Incorporating fruits into the diet can help maintain a healthy weight by providing satiety with fewer calories and promoting better food choices.
(vi) Disease prevention: Regular consumption of fruits has been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases like heart disease, certain cancers, and obesity, promoting long-term health and well-being.



(i) Fresh fruits (such as berries, mangoes, or peaches)
(ii) Sugar or sweetener (to taste)
(iii) Heavy cream
(iv) Yogurt or custard
(v) Lemon juice


(i) Wash and prepare the fruits by cutting them into bite-sized pieces.
(ii) In a bowl, mash some of the fruits to release their juices while leaving some chunks for texture.
(iii) Sweeten the mashed fruits with sugar or sweetener according to taste.
(iv) In a separate bowl, whip the heavy cream until it forms stiff peaks.
(v) Gently fold the whipped cream into the mashed fruits until well combined.
(vi) Optionally, you can add a layer of yogurt or custard at the bottom of serving glasses for extra flavor and texture.
(vii) Spoon the fruit fool mixture into serving glasses or bowls.
(viii) Chill the fruit fool in the refrigerator for at least an hour before serving.
(ix) Garnish with additional fruit slices or mint leaves if desired before serving. Enjoy your delicious and refreshing fruit fool!





(i) Meat (such as beef, pork, and poultry)
(ii) Fish (such as salmon, tuna, and trout)
(iii) Dairy products (such as milk, cheese, and yogurt)
(iv) Eggs
(v) Nuts (such as almonds, peanuts, and walnuts)
(vi) Legumes (such as lentils, chickpeas, and beans)
(vii) Whole grains (such as oats, wheat, and rice)
(viii) Seeds (such as pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, and flaxseeds)



(i) Weakness or fatigue
(ii) Loss of appetite
(iii) Bone pain or weakness
(iv) Irregular breathing
(v) Numbness or tingling in the extremities
(vi) Difficulty concentrating or memory problems
(vii) Weakened immune function


6a) Factors to consider when planning for a successful wedding or party:
1. Budget: Determine how much you can afford to spend on the event.
2. Guest list: Decide who you want to invite and how many people you can accommodate.
3. Venue: Choose a location that suits the size and style of your event.
4. Food and drinks: Plan a menu that caters to your guests’ preferences and dietary restrictions.

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